Base and wall cabinets, display fixtures, and storage shelves. The generic term for both “boxes” and special desks, reception counters, nurses stations, and the like. Generally includes the tops and work surfaces.
Generally, a moulding placed around a doorframe or window frame.
A grain appearance characterized by a series of stacked and inverted “V” or cathedral type of springwood (earlywood) summerwood (latewood) patterns common in plain sliced (flat-cut) veneer and plain sawn lumber.
A decorative moulding placed at a height on the wall comparable to the place where the back of a chair would impact the wall surface.
Lines appearing across the panel or board at right angles to the grain giving the appearance of one or more corrugations resulting from bad setting of sanding equipment or planning knives.
Small slits running parallel to grain of wood, caused chiefly by strains produced in seasoning.
Shallow depressions or indentations on or in the surface of dressed lumber caused by shavings or chips getting embedded in the surface during dressing. Very light chip marks – not over 0.4mm [1/64 inch] deep. Light chip marks – not over 0.8 mm [1/32 inch] deep. Medium chip marks – not over 1.6mm [1/16 inch] deep. Heavy chip marks – not over 3.2mm [1/8 inch] deep.
A barely perceptible irregularity in the surface of a piece caused when particles of wood are chipped or broken below the line of cut. It is too small to be classed as torn grain and is not considered unless in excess of 25% of the surface involved.
In closet and utility shelving, the wood members furnished to support the shelf.
Close and Open Grain
The size and distribution of the cellular structure of the wood influences the appearance and uniformity. Open Grain hardwoods such as Elm, Oak, Ash, and Chestnut are “ring-porous” species. These species have distinct figure and grain patterns. Close Grain hardwoods, such as Cherry, Maple, Birch, Yellow Poplar, are “diffuse-porous” species. Most North American diffuse-porous woods have small, dense pores resulting in less distinct figure and grain. Some tropical diffuse-porous species (e.g., Mahogany) have rather large pores. For the purposes of opaque finishes, materials other than Close Grain wood such as Medium Density Overlay (MDO), Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), and others could be substituted with excellent results.
A quality of rift veneer with exceptionally straight grain and closely spaced growth increments, often said to resemble the appearance on long strands of combed hair.
To cut or shape the end of a moulded wood member so that it will cover and fit the contour of the sticking coping at the joint.
Flush doors and plywood are said to have a “core” material and/or construction. Typical cores are lumber core (also known as stave lumber core); veneer core; particleboard core; or fiberboard core.
Similar to crown moulding, often smaller in size and less decorative.
A deviation edgewise from a straight line drawn from end to end of a piece . It is measured at the point of greatest distance from the straight line.
A series of naturally occurring figure effects characterized by mild or dominant patterns across the grain in some faces. For example, a washboard effect occurs in fiddleback cross figure; and cross wrinkles occur in the mottle figure. Sometimes called cross fire.
Applied to wood in which the grain is not running lengthwise of the material of in one direction. The irregularity is due to interlocked fiber, or to uneven annual rings, or to intersection of branch and stem.
Crotch come from the portion of a tree just below the point where it forks into two limbs. The grain is crushed and twisted, creating a variety of plume and flame figures, often resembling a well formed feather. The outside of the block produces a swirl figure that changes to full crotch figure as the cutting approaches the center of the block.
Mouldings used to accent ceiling intersections and traditional pediments and casework tops.
A deviation in the face of a piece from a straight line drawn from edge to edge of a piece. It is measured at the point of greatest distance from the straight line.
Figure which occurs when the fibers are distorted producing a wavy or curly effect in the lumber or veneer. Primarily found in maple or birch.
The middle or normal Grade in both material and workmanship, and intended for high-quality, conventional work.